OneStop | Directories | Search U of M 

CUES: Center for Urban Ecology and Sustainability

Back to Pollinator Conservation

Colony Collapse Disorder

Colony Collapse Disorder


Additional Resources

Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) is the name given to the mysterious decline of honey bee populations beginning in 2006. On average, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) reports that beekeepers have been losing over 30% of their honey bee colonies each year.  CCD appears to have multiple interacting causes, including Varroa mites, pathogens and sublethal pesticide exposures.  Key symptoms of CCD include: 1) inexplicable disappearance of the hive's worker bees; 2) presence of the queen bee and absence of invaders; 3) presence of food stores and a capped brood.


Beehive in sunflower field
photo from
University of Minnesota Bee Lab


USDA  Extension bee health (eXtension)

USDA NRI Managed Pollinator CAP program (eXtension)

USDA NRI CAP (Coordinated Agricultural Project) A national research and extension initiative to reverse pollinator decline program 

USDA ARS : Honey Bees and Colony Collapse Disorder

2013 Report on the national stakeholders conference on honeybee health

Colony Collapse Disorder Steering Committee Progress Reports:

2009, 2010, 2011, 2012

United States Congress:

Letter from Congress to Administrator Jackson, EPA (2012)

Honey Bee Colony Collapse Disorder (Johnson 2010)

White Papers:

Pesticides and Their Involvement in Colony Collapse Disorder (Frazier et al. 2012)

The Plight of the Bees (Spivak et al. 2011)

Pesticides and honey bee toxicity - USA (Johnson et al. 2010)


Beyond Pesticides:

Report Shows Honeybee Decline Is Global (2011)

Two Culprits Linked to Bee Decline, More Research Needed (2010)

Researchers Link Viruses, Genes and Pesticides to Bee Colony Collapse (2009)

Chemicals Implicated in Colony Collapse Disorder

Clothianidin & CCD: Fact Sheet (PAN North America & Beyond Pesticides)

 Value of Bees * Types of Bees * Bees & Pesticides * Conservation * Plants for Pollinators * Bumble Bees * EPA * European Union * Workshop * Research

Back to
Pollinator Conservation


(C) Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved.
The University of Minnesota is an equal opportunity educator and employer.

Contact U of M | Privacy
Last modified on April 07, 2014